Yet Payne carried on with this program after reading a widely distributed book about 'Hindu mind training'. He put an East Indian priest, Ramcharita Maraj, a fairly well-known Brahman, on the Rockefeller payroll, instructed him in the entire laboratory technique of the work, and then sent him out in advance of the actual campaign, armed with a copy of "King's Curse" and microscope, to do home demonstrations of the hookworm program in the guise of the characteristic method of Hindu education.
Payne described the method in the following manner:. With the cooperation of Morton and the Canadian Indian Mission, the "King's Curse" was also introduced for use in the Presbyterian schools ibid. Unfortunately at this point the trail runs dry. Payne was eventually forced to dismiss the priest after complaints by the staff, though on what grounds he did not say.
A copy of "The King's Curse" was sent to Ceylon for the consideration of the directors of the elaborate hookworm program there, but I found no evidence that it was ever adopted. The hookworm campaign in British Guiana was brought to a close in when the Rockefeller Foundation could not come to terms with a testy colonial government over an extension of the mandate.
Grimoire about demons
International Health departed Trinidad and Tobago in , though the core local staff stayed on to form the nucleus of a hookworm control unit within the revamped colonial public health service. Washburn went back to North Carolina for a few years, and then spent a long tenure in Jamaica as head of the International Health hookworm commission there in the 's and 30's. The International Health Board after , Division gradually dismantled its global belt of hookworm treatment programs and shifted its focus to other approaches to disease control and eradication, especially yellow fever and malaria, that were highly verticalized and technoscientific.
Part of this "retreat from hookworm" may well be explicable as a reaction to the drift into cultural translation that hookworm disease treatment seemed to demand, due to its intensive, house-to-house negotiation with people of distinct ethno-medical beliefs. It is possible that yellow fever and malaria work, with their greater emphasis on attacking the parasitic vector, appeared to the public health men to be freer of this prickly dimension of cultural transaction.
Still, the story of the demon that turned into worms forces us to ask, what has become of biomedicine when its messages of microscopic pathogens and preventive hygiene are imparted by a goblin inhabiting a corpse? The biopolitical power of Western medicine, and its use as an arm of imperial power, is often at the forefront of historical and anthropological research, and the popularization of germ theory seen as the deployment of new forms of social control.
We also know that, especially in Latin America and the Caribbean, medical culture is notoriously pluralist, and scholars often celebrate that medical pluralism as a way for subaltern sufferers to choose what they want from different medical systems. On the basis of the preceding historical account, however, we can propose a different hypothesis: the region's medical pluralism is the form of biomedical hegemony in many parts of Latin America and the Caribbean, and it emerged and was shaped in important ways through exchanges across medical cultures like the ones I have discussed here.
The encounter of the Rockefeller Foundation, unquestionably the first mass proselytizers of biomedicine on a global scale, with other world medical systems forced its agents to consider a related question: is there disease without story-telling?
The long-term historical outcome of this engagement is, of course, not something that can be established here. Given the extraordinary, heterodox form in which biomedicine was served up to the Indo-Guyanese and Indo-Trinidadian populations, and given the religious and missionary nature of the structures of public health indoctrination, it would not be surprising to find that the Hindus among them, at least, accommodated some idea of biomedicine as part of an enriched pantheistic cultural practice.
Abel, Christopher External philanthropy and domestic change in Colombian health care: the role of the Rockefeller Foundation, ca. Hispanic american historical review , v. New York: Basic Books, p. American literary history , v. In: Amus, Diego ed. From malaria to Aids : disease in the history of modern Latin America.
In: La Guerre, John Garrar ed.
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Calcutta to Caroni : the East Indians of Trinidad. Trinidad and Jamaica: Longman Caribbean. Richard Public health and imperialism: early Rockefeller Programs at home and abroad. American journal of public health , v. Berkeley: University of California Press. Barbados: University of the West Indies Press.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press. In: Cunningham, Andrew; Williams, Perry ed. The laboratory revolution in medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jambhaladatta's Version of the Vetalapancavinsati. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. London: Cambridge University Press. Work in Trinidad and Tobago, New York: University Press of America.
In: Bynum, W. Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine.
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London: Routledge. New York: St. Martin's Press. Hantsport Nova Scotia : Lancelot Press. Studies in the jistory and philosophy of biology and biomedical sciences , v. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum. Rockefeller archive newsletter , Spring, p. Durham: Duke University Press, p. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Caribbean Quarterly , v. In: Rosenberg, Charles; Golden, Janet ed. Framing disease : studies in cultural history.
In: La Guerra, John Garrar ed. Submitted on September Rango references everything from Clint Eastwood's "Man with No Name" pictures to Depp's own gonzo Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, but what makes this a must-see are the surreal visual gags and deadpan tone — it's like a cartoon version of a Coen brothers comedy.
White's beloved children's novel about Wilbur the pig and his friend Charlotte the spider was turned into a musical with earwormy songs by the Sherman Brothers Mary Poppins, Jungle Book : one never really forgets Templeton the rat dancing through a fairground gorging himself on trash and singing "the fair is a veritable smorgasborg-orgasborg-orgasborg!
Most associate Japan's hugely influential animation studio Studio Ghibli with the work of legendary co-founder Hayao Miyazaki. But his partner Isao Takahata is also a formidable filmmaker, never more so than in this devastating World War II drama, in which a teenage brother and his kid sister must learn to survive after their town has been eradicated by American bombers. Grave of the Fireflies might be the pinnacle of adults-only animation: The movie may focus on children, but it's a profoundly grownup tale of war and loss, the overall mood one of despair and anger.
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The freaky art design and distinctive paper-cutout animation style still wow curious viewers today, while Alain Goraguer's eerie score creates an uncanny tone seldom heard on a soundtrack. Towering azure-skinned aliens called Traags keep humans for pets and indifferently abuse them as such, so the subtext isn't too sub-. But the inventive aesthetics alone qualify this one for inclusion on all-time lists such as these.
Ditching his job at Disney in the late s after being disillusioned with the Mouse House's sputtering creative drive, Don Bluth made his feature directorial debut with this fable about a widowed mouse who must move her family's home so that a farmer doesn't destroy it. That quest leads to her discovery of what happened to her beloved husband, who was part of insidious government trials on rats. Based on Robert C. O'Brien's book, The Secret of NIMH folds a commentary on the evils of animal experimentation and a salute to the bravery of single moms into a smart, gripping action-adventure framework, becoming an underappreciated touchstone for sensitive Eighties kids.
The story of an unlikely friendship between a little boy and a lonely old man with a house towed by thousands of balloons, talking dogs and a good ol' zeppelin fight thrown in for good measure is a bit of magical realism that befits its subject of never being too old for an adventure.
Japanese master Hayao Miyazaki brilliantly blends Eastern and Western sensibilities in this antiwar tale, loosely adapted from a novel by Brit Diana Wynne Jones. Howl 's Moving Castle features one of Studio Ghibli's most inventive set pieces: a mobile steampunk castle powered by a wisecracking fire demon and lorded over by a bellicose wizard.
Filtering the aesthetics of Old World Europe through a Eastern lens, it's a visually stunning love story that's also a blistering indictment of the human and environmental toll of war. Although the artist himself was no fan — he immediately killed off Fritz with an icepick in the books. Targeting everyone from social fatcats rendered as literal fat cats to simpering progressives, the midnight-movie staple burns like a Molotov cocktail, equal parts nihilism and let-it-all-hang-out hedonism.
Marjane Satrapi's graphic novel is one of the great achievements in comics history: a sui generis look inside Iran during the rise of the fundamentalist Islamic government, told from the perspective of a punky teenage girl. The movie version made in collaboration with French animator Vincent Paronnaud is just as lively, tracking the heroine as she rebels and screws up just like any kid, but in a country where even wearing lipstick can get a young woman arrested. With its thick-lined monochrome art and its eye-opening story about Satrapi's migration to Europe, the movie is as gripping and groundbreaking as the original book.
Before the Christopher Nolan Batmans made superhero movies dark and the Marvel Cinematic Universe made them mythically intertwined, Pixar's take on caped crusaders made them more inventive and fun than they've ever been since. Countless superhero stories deal with public blowback over collateral damage, but writer-director Brad Bird The Iron Giant gets endless comic mileage out of "Supers" trying to fit into normal, buttoned-down, middle-class society. When they're finally called to action, the thrills come not only from the Incredibles saving the world, but from the freedom to be their true selves.
Remember: The family that fights super villains togethers, stays together. The fussbudget inventor Wallace and his faithful dog Gromit are one of the screen's great comedy duos, and they — and the hands that patiently mold their Plasticene bodies — are at their best as they do battle with a sociopathic penguin armed with a pair of robotic pants. Just go with it. Nick Park and his Aardman crew, also responsible for the classic "Creature Comforts," in which zoo animals candidly discuss the merits of life behind bars, sweat every painstaking detail of the duo's miniature environment, right down to the wallpaper in their cozy British cottage.
Israeli documentarian Ari Folman was accustomed to making traditional live-action films, but he chose animation to explore the slippery nature of memories, specifically those that he and his friends repressed after fighting in the devastating Lebanon War. Folman's conversations with friends and slow unwinding of his own memories become more distressing as the film goes on; because it's fully animated, the usual documentary method of jumping from talking-head interview to re-enactment gives way to a blurred present and past.
The result is hallucinatory and unnerving, a cri de coeur mixing personal experience, political protest and poetry. What people might forget, however, is that Bambi is a beautiful and lyrical affirmation of life, which must include death, but which also makes room for friendship, family, and the verdant glories of the natural world. Losing her mother may have been the end of the innocence for the movie's titular doe, but the film makes a strong virtue of growing up, gaining knowledge, and learning to stand on your own four legs.
The most technically crude movie on this list is also one of its most sophisticated. Trey Parker and Matt Stone love primitive, cutout-style animation and broad gags — the movie's subtitle is possibly the least subtle dick joke ever made — but they're also deft satirists with a keen eye and deadly aim. And don't forget the punch and pie. Nine-tenths of a century after its initial release, Lotte Reininger's otherworldly fable still astonishes with its rapturous fluidity.
The Demon that Turned into Worms. Indentured East Indian workers had begun to arrive in British Guiana and Trinidad in the late s, in the wake of the emancipation of slaves of African descent, to fill labor quotas on sugar estates owned mostly by British planters.